(back to Fit)

Core readings

Internal fit

  1. Chandler, A. D., Jr. 1962. Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (esp. Chapters 1, 2, 6, 7)
  2. Miller, D. 1996. Configurations revisited. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 505-512.

New approaches to internal fit

  1. Milgrom, P. R. & Roberts, J. 1995. Complementarities and fit: Strategy, structure, and organizational change in manufacturing. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 19: 179-208.
  2. *Rivkin, J. W. 2000. Imitation of complex strategies. Management Science, 46: 824-844.
  3. *Siggelkow, N. 2002. Evolution toward fit. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47: 125-159.

External fit

  1. Lawrence, P. R. & Lorsch, J. W. 1967. Organization and Environment. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. (esp. Chapters 1, 4, 6, 8)
  2. Van de Ven, A. H. & Drazin, R. 1985. The concept of fit in contingency theory. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7: 333-365.

Supplementary readings

Conceptual background pieces

  1. Miller, D. & Friesen, P. H. 1984. Organizations: A Quantum View. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  2. *Siggelkow, N. 2001. Change in the presence of fit: The rise, the fall, and the renaissance of Liz Claiborne. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 838-857.
  3. Michael E. Porter and Nicolaj Siggelkow. 2008. “Contextual Interactions within Activity Systems and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage.” Academy of Management Perspectives, 22 (2), pp. 34-56.

Empirical tests of external fit

  1. Drazin, R. & Van de Ven, A. H. 1985. Alternative forms of fit in contingency theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30: 514-539.
  2. Gresov, C. 1989. Exploring fit and misfit with multiple contingencies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34: 431-453.
  3. Conceptual work on complementarities:
  4. Milgrom, P. R. & Roberts, J. 1990. The economics of modern manufacturing: Technology, strategy, and organization. American Economic Review, 80: 511-528.

Empirical work on complementarities

  1. Athey, S. & Stern, S. 1998. An empirical framework for testing theories about complementarity in organizational design. NBER Working Paper #6600, Cambridge, MA.
  2. Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. 1997. The effects of human resource management practices on productivity: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87: 291-313.
  3. Cassiman, B. & Veugelers, R. 2006. In search of complementarity in innovation strategy: Internal R&D and external knowledge acquisition. Management Science, 52: 68-82.
  4. Simulation work on interdependencies:
  5. Levinthal, D. 1997. Adaptation on rugged landscapes. Management Science, 43, 934-950.
  6. Siggelkow, N. & Rivkin, J. W. 2005. Speed and search: Designing organizations for turbulence and complexity. Organization Science, 16: 101-122.

  • An asterisk denotes a reading that emerged, at least in part, from an author’s dissertation research.